TOJNED - Volume 7 - Issue 1 - January 2017

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A CHARACTERISTIC WAY OF CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION OF THE PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN CHINA: THE PRACTICE AND ENLIGHTENMENT FROM THE NATIONAL TEACHER TRAINING PROGRAM

Huaying BAO, Wenfeng HUANG, Yuanxia LIU, Lan XIA, Faxin WANG, Shuo WANG

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In China, the unbalanced professional competencies of K-12 school teachers in the urban and rural areas seriously influence the equitable and healthy development of basic education. To improve the overall quality of the kindergartens, primary and secondary school teachers, National Teacher Training Program (NTTP) for the teachers has been implemented by Chinese government since 2010. Among 2010 and 2014, more than 7 million K-12 school teachers were trained through NTTP, who mostly were from the midwest, rural regions, and the subject areas of short teacher supply. By the strong support and leadership of the governments, the program integrated the training resources from colleges, K-12 schools and training institutions (enterprises) effectively. In addition, NTTP significantly promoted the innovation of training patterns and the improvement of professionalism in teacher training. The comprehensive supervision polices and the combined evaluation methods of NTTP also provided good references to ensure the effectiveness and pertinence of large–scale training. The practice of NTTP has traced a leading and characteristic way of professional education, which also has the important enlightenment for the continuing development of the other specialized field in China.

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A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EDUCATIONAL SUPPORT FOR STUDENTS WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES BETWEEN JAPAN AND THE U.S.

Noboru Sakai

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Learning disabilities (LD) are one of the essential issues in education, and also a very difficult challenge to overcome it in practice. This study compares to Japan and the U.S. as an example case of a country where LD support is still early stage and relatively advanced respectively, with the supports based on three different level of organizations: schools, communities, and nationwide. Supports for LD students may be in a challenging stage, but educational support based on their educational culture will result a meaningful outcomes for their future support systems.

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AN INVESTIGATION OF THE CONVENIENCE OF CARTOON FILMS IN TERMS OF DEVELOPMENTAL LEVELS OF PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN

Fulya ZORLU, Erhan YEŞİLYURT, Özlem KORAY, Bahriye GÜNGÖR, Elif TOM

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Abstract: The purpose of this study is investigating the convenience of cartoon films with respect to the developmental levels of pre-school children. Content analysis, one of the techniques of qualitative research, was used in the study. 10 cartoon films, five local and five foreign, showed in Turkish television channels from the year of 2014 to 2015 were investigated in terms of different points. A rubric including 20 items was used in the study and the tool was prepared by the researchers in the light of the related literature and views of the experts. Results showed that value factor was more frequently included in cartoon films while factors such as sexuality and superstitious beliefs were less likely observed. Furthermore, local cartoon films had more positive aspects in comparison with the cartoon films of foreign countries.

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ANALYSIS OF GAMIFICATION OF EDUCATION

Emel Koc Avsar

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experience, the educational community indicate consensus on necessity of “gamification” of education to improve the quality of education. The study presented here is motivated by this necessity and aim to review literature related to the use of gamification of education. “Gamification” is about motivation and engagement. Making learning fun does not require huge investments in technology. Instead, focusing on the ways that entertainment technology engages us can result in methods that we can transfer to any learning situation. Many educators have attempted, with varying degrees of success, to effectively operate game elements to increase student motivation and achievement in the classroom. There have been many obstacles in their courses as the intellectual challenges of mastering the content of the course. To overcome these obstacles, students are expected to engage in critical thinking and push themselves to consider new ideas. In order to overcome these obstacles, a large collection of proven techniques such as abstraction, decomposition, iteration and recursion which has called computational thinking will be integrated to gamification of education.

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APPLICATIONS OF CRITICAL THINKING RESEARCH: FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING IN AN INTERCULTURAL CONTEXT

Saltanat Meiramova

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Abstract: This paper reports on a methodology of teaching critical thinking skills in English as a foreign language (EFL) classes in an institution of higher education in Kazakhstan. The study findings suggest that the use of critical thinking impacts students’ learning in the content area as it makes them aware of critical thinking as a way to approach intercultural exploration. The research results provide practical suggestions on how to guide students to develop and apply critical thinking skills. The critical thinking-based learning of EFL is conceptualized as the development of teaching strategies to help promote critical thinking in regards to students’ intercultural awareness. The paper suggests a sample critical thinking lesson plan for engaging in critical thinking when teaching English as a foreign language and examines critical thinking strategies that can be used to foster critical thinking and relevant skills to deal with various problematic issues of conceptualization successfully.

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CORRELATED-FEATURES SEQUENCE AND COGNITIVE STRATEGY EDUCATION BASED ON DIRECT INSTRUCTION MODEL IN MATH SKILLS OF STUDENTS WITH SPECIAL NEEDS

Ulviye ŞENER AKIN, Banu ALTUNAY ARSLANTEKİN

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Abstract: Math skills are one of the most important skills in daily and academic life for the individuals with special needs. As math skills have a hierarchical structure, students often encounter problems in math skills. Math education needs to be effectively designed for students with special needs. A well-designed curriculum constitutes the basis of the success. The Direct Instruction model differs from other models as it focuseson the generalization with long-term practices and the design of the curriculum. In Direct Instruction model, instruction needs to be analyzed in terms of content and the teacher needs to determine which association types the subjects are divided into within the content analysis. From the simple to the complex, association types are categorized as verbal associations (simple facts, verbal chains and discriminations), concepts, correlated-features sequence and cognitive strategies. The main purpose of the current studyis to examine correlated-features sequence and cognitive strategy education based on the Direct Instruction model in math skills of students with special needs.

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DEVELOPING 21ST CENTURY SKILLS THROUGH PROJECT-BASED LEARNING IN EFL CONTEXT: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES

Shree Prasad Devkota, Dhundi Raj Giri, Shiba Bagale

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Abstract: Learners learn the best when they are engaged in learning by doing. In order to cope with the 21st century problems, learners need to be prepared with 21st century skills and project-based learning can be one of the best teaching approaches to develop the 21st century skills. This article focuses on the discussion on project-based learning (PBL), 21st century skills, and role of teacher, 21st century learners, and 21st century schools as workplace, challenges and opportunities in Nepal as EFL context on the basis of research with five research participants. Furthmore, this research article can give a lot of insight about PBL and its challenges and possible opportunities using in EFL context in Nepal.

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DEVELOPING SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS AND SOME OF ACCOMPANYING SKILLS THROUGH OBSERVATION OF LIFE CYCLE OF SILKWORM BY KINDERGARTEN CHILD

Shaymaa Shawkey Elkeey

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This research targeted to develop science process skills and some of accompanying skills through observation life cycle of silkworm by kindergarten child. For achieving this purpose the researcher began this work with the study of the science process skills, accompanying skills, observation, life cycle of silkworm and the relation between them through access to the educational literature and the previous studies and research. Two research questions and thirty two hypotheses guided the research. The hypotheses were tested at p≤0.01 level of significance. The pretest and posttest experimental and control group design was used for the search. A sample was consisting of 34 preschoolers randomly selected from star baby kindergarten – Tanta district was used for the research. The experimental group was taught science process skills and some of accompanying skills using the program based on observation of life cycle of silkworm, while the control group was exposed to lecture method. Three validated instruments called scale of science process skills; two note cards for science process skills and some of accompanying skills. Accordingly, it was concluded that observation life cycle of silkworm by kindergarten child was important for the acquisition and development of science process skills and some of accompanying skills.

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DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES, LEARNING AND SCHOOL: PRACTICES AND PERCEPTIONS OF YOUNG CHILDREN (UNDER 8) AND THEIR PARENTS

Rita Brito, Patrícia Dias

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This article explores the practices and perceptions of young children (under 8 years old) and their families about the use of digital technologies at school and their potential for learning, as well as the articulation between formal learning at school and informal learning at home. Data was collected through activities with children and their families, and then we used qualitative content analysis to explore them. The results show that the use of digital technologies at school is more common in Primary, being rare in Preschool. However, the pedagogical potential of devices like computers and tablets is underexplored both in schools and at home. Parents consider that children under 8 are too young for using digital tools in school work and believe they are not prepared to do so yet (although children are actually tech-savvy).

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EFFECTIVENESS OF DIRECT INSTRUCTION MODEL IN ACQUISITION AND MAINTENANCE OF GEOMETRIC SHAPE CONCEPTS FOR STUDENTS WITH VISUAL IMPAIRMENT

Banu ALTUNAY ARSLANTEKİN, Ulviye ŞENER AKIN

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The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of Direct Instruction model in acquisition and maintenance of geometric shape concepts for students with visual impairment. Three 1st grade students attending an urban primary public school for visually impaired students participated in this study. The design of the study is a multiple probe-across-patricipants design. Criterion-referenced tests were developed and conducted to assess the sphere concept in participating students. The results of the study showed that the Direct Instruction model is effective on the concept acquisition and maintenance in all the participants. Generalization data showed that the sphere concept was mastered by the participants.Social Validity data revealed that all students enjoyed the intervention. Results of the study were discussed and recommendations for further research were provided.

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EFFECTS OF VIRTUAL LABORATORY ON ACHIEVEMENT LEVELS AND GENDER OF SECONDARY SCHOOL CHEMISTRY STUDENTS IN INDIVIDUALIZED AND COLLABORATIVE SETTINGS IN MINNA, NIGERIA

Amosa Isiaka GAMBARI, O. O. OBIELODAN, H. KAWU

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The study investigated the effects of virtual laboratory on the achievement levels and gender of secondary school chemistry students in individualized and collaborative settings in Minna, Nigeria. Five hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. 120 Senior Secondary Class Two (SS II) chemistry Students were stratified along gender and achievement levels. Sixty students (male, n = 30 & female, n = 30) were randomly selected from each school. The study employed a quasi-experimental involving pretest, posttest, and control group design. A validated Chemistry Achievement Test (CAT) made-up of twenty multiple-choice items was used for data collection. A reliability coefficient of 0.91 was obtained from the pilot test using Kuder Richardson (KR-20). Mean and ANCOVA were employed in analyzing the data. The results showed that: (i) Students exposed to chemistry virtual laboratory package in collaborative learning setting outperformed their counterparts in individualized setting; (ii) there was significant difference in the mean achievement scores of male and female students taught using Chemistry using Virtual Laboratory in Individualized Setting; (iii) There was no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of male and female students taught chemistry using virtual laboratory in collaborative learning setting; (iv) there was no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of high, medium and low students taught using chemistry virtual laboratory in collaborative, and individualized settings respectively. Based on these findings, it was recommended that the use of virtual laboratory instruction in collaborative setting should be encouraged in teaching chemistry at senior secondary schools in Nigeria.

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EXAMINING INSERVICE TEACHERS’ MENTAL MODELS ON TEACHING SCIENCE THROUGH ONLINE LEARNING

Amanda M. Gunning

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Abstract: Teachers’ practice is influenced by their own experiences, their existing beliefs –or mental models –of what teaching and learning is. These mental models have been believed to be very persistent and arduous to change. This qualitative case study describes the shift that took place in the practice of teachers after a two-year online fellowship focusing on online resources. Data collected from phone interviews and teachers’ writings and coursework illustrated existing mental models at the start of the fellowship, rooted in early education experiences. By the end of the program, participants largely had changed their instructional methods, moving toward more inquiry-based practices and a marked increase in the use of technology in the classroom.

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INFORMING STUDENTS ABOUT BULLYING THROUGH THE DEVELOPMENT OF DIGITAL STORIES. RESULTS OF A PROJECT IN GREECE

Emmanuel Fokides

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The study presents the results of a project in which third-grade primary school students developed their own
digital stories and through this process, they advanced their understanding of what bullying is. The constructivist
principles concerning the learning process, and in particular, the requirement of students' active participation,
provided the necessary framework. Participants were 132 students, from six schools in Athens, Greece. Their
teachers, although present, avoided guiding or lecturing them. Data was obtained by analyzing students' digital
stories, the short essays they were asked to write after the intervention, and a short test that tried to determine if
they could make the distinction between bullying and non-bullying situations. The results indicated that students
were able to grasp what bullying is, its main aspects and how they should react, but they were not able to
accurately portray the role of bystanders. The intervention was short in duration and can be easily applied,
without altering the school's timetable. The results of the study might prove useful when designing more
comprehensive anti-bullying programs.

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NATIONAL-LEVEL CURRICULUM DECISION-MAKING IN FINLAND, SINGAPORE, AND THE US

SooBin Jang

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This paper’s purpose is to understand different approaches to the national-level curriculum decision-making by looking at three systems: Finland, Singapore, and the US. Although rhetorical and administrative shifts towards centralization are common to many countries under international testing practices, the structure and function of national-level school curriculum, the composition of actors in centralized agencies, and the driving rationale for education centralization, all vary by country due to their differing administrative structures, and histories, and institutionalized curriculum decision-making practices. Based on literature reviews, this paper compares three different approaches to curriculum centralization by questioning and answering who decides on curricula, and how, in the current international testing and comparison policy context. The tree examined cases reveal that in each the justification rationale for curriculum centralization is strikingly similar, and that the influence of traditional curriculum decision-makers weakens, whereas new policy actors arise.

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SELF-EFFICACY BELIEFS OF PROSPECTIVE TEACHERS

Sevim Sevgi,Gülsüm Gök, Fulya Öner Armağan

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The purpose of the study is to examine the prospective teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs about teaching. Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES) (Tschannen-Moran and Hoy, 2001) with demographic part was administered to prospective teachers at the first and last years at a state university in Turkey. TSES was adapted to Turkish language by Çapa, Çakıroğlu&Sarıkaya (2005). Their study confirmed that three sub-scales of TSES is valid for Turkish prospective teachers. The sub-scales of the TSES: efficacy of instructional strategies and efficacy of classroom management strategies and efficacy of student engagement.In the present study, 213 freshman and 240 senior prospective elementary teachers’ data was analyzed by independent sample t-tests. Means of efficacy sub-scales of freshmen are Minstructional= 6.80, Mmanagement= 6.84 and Mengagement=6.72. Means of efficacy sub-scales of seniors are Minstructional= 6.73, Mmanagement= 6.73 and Mengagement=6.59. Based on means, Turkish prospective teachers’ efficacy beliefs were high. There was no significant mean difference between freshman and senior prospective teachers with respect to their efficacy beliefs in student engagement (t (485) =1.37. p= .169), instructional strategies (t (471.497) =0.726. p= .486), and classroom management (t (472.451) = 1.119. p= .264).Implications for further research were given.

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TEACHER EFFECTIVENESS AND RELATED CHARACTERISTICS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

Rupnar Dutta, Santoshi Halder, Malay Kumar Sen

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During last two decades, numerous researchers have been studying related characteristics of Teacher Effectiveness. In order to arrive at and identify the research gap on the area of the proposed study, a systematic review of related literature was conducted on ‘Teacher Effectiveness and its related characteristics’. For systematic review, certain definite steps were followed to survey the related literature. First, in planning stage, ‘Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria’ were defined to identify the related literature systematically. Secondly, in the review stage, ‘Summary of the Findings’ were analyzed and discussed after recording the identified studies in a ‘Systematic Review Table’. Thirdly, in the final stage, ‘Research Gap’ was identified in the field of present investigation. Only those studies which were published between the years of 1990 to 2015, were included. For searching the related literature, only the computer based online Internet searches were conducted through the Search Engines mentioned above (see Table 1). Only the studies which performed Survey type researches with large samples based on Person related and Categorical variables, were included and identified for systematic review. By searching with several permutations and combinations of the Key words through the Search Engines, related 244 studies were collected. With respect to the criteria 116 studies were excluded and finally 128 studies were selected and gathered in the pool of systematic table (see Table 2).

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THE METHOD OF FORMING SPATIAL REPRESENTATIONS AND IMAGINATION, CONSTRUCTIVE AND GEOMETRIC THINKING OF STUDENTS WHEN STUDYING DISCIPLINE "COMPUTER ENGINEERING GRAPHICS"

Dmitry MIROSHIN

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The article describes the experience of application of method of formation of spatial representation and imagination, constructive and geometric thinking within the discipline «Computer engineering graphics», studied at a college. It describes the methods, methodological support and training element for the formation of a tentative scheme of steps of the learners for the typical graphics tasks organized during independent work. It describes a pedagogical experiment, analyzes the results of the experiment and gives recommendations for the implementation of the methodology.

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TRANSITION TO MULTIDIMENSIONAL AND COGNITIVE DIAGNOSIS ADAPTIVE TESTING: AN OVERVIEW OF CAT

Lokman Akbay, Mehmet Kaplan

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Although many early adaptive testing methodologies in the literature are based upon unidimensional item response theory (IRT) models, these methodologies have been generalized to or adjusted for multidimensional cases. Along with the developments on the multidimensional adaptive testing, cognitive diagnosis modeling has also shown rapid development over the past decades. Despite of its novelty, researchers have already conducted studies to manage to implement cognitive diagnosis computerized adaptive testing (CD-CAT). Following these developments, this manuscript aims to compile and highlight the developments in multidimensional computerized adaptive testing and review the advances in the CD-CAT development.

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