TOJNED - Volume 7 - Issue 2 - April 2017

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A COMPARISON OF SOUTH AFRICA GRADE 11 LEARNERS’ AND PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS’ UNDERSTANDINGS OF NATURE OF SCIENCE

Elaosi Vhurumuku, Washington T. Dudu

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This paper reports the results of a study that compared South Africa Grade 11 learners (n=10) and third year
B.Ed. Pre-service teachers’ (n=10) understandings of Nature of Science (NOS) as part of their Physical Science
subject matter knowledge. Data on the learners’ and pre-service teachers’ NOS understandings was
quantitatively and qualitatively collected using a Likert type questionnaire and interviews respectively.
Quantitative analysis of the data is done using the Mann-Whitney U test and graphical comparison of median
scores of Likert questionnaire items to ascertain differences in NOS understandings between the Grade 11
learners and the B.Ed. Pre-service teachers. A combination of typological and interpretative analysis of interview
transcripts is done to determine differences in NOS understandings between learners and Pre-service
teachers.The analyses reveal that overall, the Learners and B.Ed. Pre-service teachers’ understandings of NOS
are not very different from each other. It is recommended that if the goal of science education for scientific
literacy is to be achieved, initial teacher education training should do more to explicitly develop pre-service
teachers’ subject matter knowledge understandings, pedagogical skills and valuing of NOS, that is, their
pedagogical content knowledge for nature of science. Explicit testing of learners’ NOS understandings is
suggested as a way of improving the school Physical Science curriculum.

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A PROPOSAL TO USE CLASSROOM OBSERVATIONS AS ASSESSMENT DATA TO MEASURE AND EVALUATE EFFECTIVE TEACHING

Jace Hargis, Melissa Soto

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Effective teaching has historically been evaluated by using student perception surveys. This paper proposes a
method to supplement the student surveys. The method would empower faculty to gather additional assessment
data aligned with effective teaching and subsequently provide them with measurement tools to self-evaluate their
effective teaching. For the theoretical framework, we integrate the three major stages of assessment;
measurement; and evaluation. The assessment stage addresses three further steps, which include a/n preobservation;
observation; and post-observation. Within the observation step, there is also three parts, a
quantitative checklist; qualitative field narrative; and faculty flow diagram. In the measurement stage, an
analytical rubric has been created and proposed to assist faculty in measuring their assessment data and enable a
more complete final evaluation step. The ultimate goal is to provide faculty with the ability to gather broader
representations of their teaching, which will enable them to monitor, update and continuously improve their
personalized teaching philosophy.

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ADDRESSING SCIENTIFIC LITERACY THROUGH VIRTUAL SCIENCE CENTRE IS BETTER COMMUNICATED THROUGH FREE CHOICE COMPARED TO PROBLEM BASED LEARNING?

Norfarah Nordin, Mohd Ali Samsudin, Daniel Loy Hui Siang

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This study compares the effects between free-choice learning (FCL) and problem-based learning (PBL) in a
virtual science centre. It is hypothesized that effective approach to communicate virtual science centre content
has a significance impact on improving visitors’ scientific literacy. Three constructs of scientific literacy
identified were general science knowledge, nature of science, and scientific reasoning. The research sampled 72
secondary school students in Malaysia. MANCOVA technique was used in the study. The results demonstrated
that FCL approach has higher post-means test scores on scientific literacy constructs compared to the PBL
group.

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AN EXPLORATION OF THE USE OF TECHNOLOGY TO ADDRESS ACADEMIC LANGUAGE LEARNING IN TEACHER EDUCATION IN PREPARATION FOR THE EDTPA

Joshua A. Cuevas, L. Roxanne Russell

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This qualitative exploratory research examined the processes student-teachers used to address academic
language in lessons generated for middle school instruction. Undergraduate student-teachers were provided
access to ReadAhead, a technological platform designed to scaffold students’ content literacy skills. The studentteachers
were serving year-long internships in four content areas and preparing to complete their edTPA teacher
certification portfolios. They planned and implemented lessons within diverse middle school settings. They were
subsequently interviewed concerning their thought processes in creating and implementing the lessons, and a
document analysis was conducted. The findings indicated that the student-teachers approached the lessons with
different purposes in mind, and those divergent purposes influenced other critical aspects of the lessons. They
also showed a lack of metacognitive awareness concerning the integration of academic language, though they
unconsciously addressed it in ways consistent with the literature and the edTPA’s expectations. Ultimately,
academic language instruction is essential to learning in all content areas, yet the definitions and application of it
may still be unclear to aspiring educators in teacher preparation programs. Considering that the incorporation of
academic language instruction will be vital to the licensure process and subsequent practice, it becomes
imperative that teacher education programs methodically address the issue.

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ASSESSING MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES (MI) THROUGH THE SOUTH AFRICAN CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT

MC Maphalala, N Mpofu

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The purpose of this study is to explore possible assessment opportunities in the South African Curriculum and
Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS) through Gardner’s theory of Multiple Intelligences (MI). Although the
CAPS document does not explicitly align itself to Gardner’s theory, this paper attempts to explore the
possibilities of using the eight MI in assessment at Senior Phase1 a schooling grade in the South African
secondary school. A burgeoning research output has focused on Gardner's theory of MI as a framework for
designing a curriculum that meets different learning and teaching styles. In contrast, few studies have attempted
to understand MI as an assessment framework. MI provides useful framework for teachers to consider eight
intelligences in their assessment in order to cater for the diverse ways in which learners come to know in the
classroom. This paper is written to argue that the traditional ways of assessing through tests and exams do not
allow learners to demonstrate multiple intelligences they possessed. The paper followed a literature study
approach where existing literature on MI was described and analysed in the light of assessment opportunities
offered at Senior Phase curriculum in South Africa. From an analysis of literature and the Senior Phase
curriculum, the paper does show a positive opinion of integrating Gardener’s eight MI for holistic learner
assessment. Furthermore, the paper also considers the implications of MI theory on teaching and proposes ways
in which MI could be assessed within the curriculum.

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"BUILDING ON THE IDEAS AS OPPOSED TO TEARING DOWN IDEAS": IMPROVISER FACILITATORS’ CONTRIBUTIONS TO WORKPLACE LEARNING

Nicole A. Buras

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When people think of improvisation, typically, performance arts come to mind. However, improv has offstage
uses in adult learning—and more narrowly in workplace learning. The purpose of this study was to examine
trained improviser facilitators’ uses of improvisational strategies in workplace learning. The conceptual
framework drew from literature on improvisation and applications of improv in workplace learning. This study
employed a basic interpretive qualitative approach. Sixteen participants participated in this study, and data
collection included interviews, participant responses to a reflective writing prompt, and artifacts. Results from
this study highlighted the benefits an improviser facilitator provided in workplace learning. Improvisation
motivated embodied awareness of oneself and others and exemplified experiential learning in workplace
learning. Additionally, improvising the improv training allowed facilitators to meet the needs of the employees
in workplace learning. This study demonstrated how improv in workplace learning aligned with an
understanding around organizational learning and learning organizations. This study included a discussion of
future research on the integration of improv in workplace learning.

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DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF WEB-BASED COURSEWARE FOR JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL BASIC TECHNOLOGY STUDENTS IN NIGERIA

Vivian Njedeka ANUNOBI, Amosa Isiaka GAMBARI, Thomas Omotayo ALABI, Mohammed Bashiru ABDULLAHI

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This research aimed to develop and validate a web-based courseware for junior secondary school basic
technology students in Nigeria. In this study, a mixed method quantitative pilot study design with qualitative
components was used to test and ascertain the ease of development and validation of the web-based courseware.
Dick and Carey instructional system design model was adopted for developing the courseware. Convenience
sampling technique was used in selecting the three content, computer and educational technology experts to
validate the web-based courseware. Non-randomized and non-equivalent Junior secondary school students from
two schools were used for field trial validation. Four validating instruments were employed in conducting this
study: (i) Content Validation Assessment Report (CVAR); (ii) Computer Expert Validation Assessment Report
(CEAR); (iii) Educational Technology Experts Validation Assessment Report (ETEVAR); and (iv) Students
Validation Questionnaire (SVQ). All the instruments were face and content validated. SVQ was pilot tested and
reliability coefficient of 0.85 was obtained using Cronbach Alpha. CVAR, CEAR, ETEVAR were administered
on content specialists, computer experts, and educational technology experts, while SVQ was administered on 83
JSS students from two selected secondary schools in Minna. The findings revealed that the process of developing
web-based courseware using Dick and Carey Instructional System Design was successful. In addition, the report
from the validating team revealed that the web-based courseware is valuable for learning basic technology. It is
therefore recommended that web-based courseware should be produced to teach basic technology concepts on
large scale.

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EFFECT OF HERO CONCEPT IN FOLKLORE MATERIAL ON STUDENT’S RESPONSE IN ADDRESSING STUDENT BRAWLS

Nazla Maharani Umaya, Sarwiji, Budiyono, Andayani

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This article contains the result of a thorough exploratory study on the effect of hero concept in folklore material
on local student brawls and an experiment a new concept of folklore material in Semarang, Central Java,
Indonesia. The following result can be applied as a local analysis which can be met in many places with flexible
and contextual solutions. The method used is a mixture of exploration and quasi-experiment.The discussion
includes the character involvement of teenagers aged 12-15 years old, students, teaching material in learning
activities, components of hero concept, and its role in finding solutions to overcome student brawls. The
hypothesis of the study is the level of acceptability that hero concept in teaching materials affects the increase of
the positive behavior and opportunities reducing the number of student brawls.

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GENDER DIFFERENCES IN ACADEMIC PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH MATH ACHIEVEMENT

Ka-won Lee

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This study examined gender differences in influential antecedent learning factors that are associated with math
achievement. Using the dataset extracted from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002, structural equation
modeling yields three major findings: (a) social economic status (SES), educational aspiration for attaining an
educational degree, total AP/IB math courses, and the degree of advanced math course taking are significantly
related with math self-efficacy (p<. 001); (b) female students have better preparation in math through taking
advanced math courses (p<.001) and have higher educational aspiration in obtaining advanced degrees (p<.001),
while having significantly lower math self-efficacy than male students (p<.001); and (c) given the finding that
female students have lower math achievement than male students (p<.001), math self-efficacy is the most critical
antecedent learning factor for female students affecting math achievement. These results suggest that for female
students, how to enhance math self-efficacy is a critical matter to improve math achievement.

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THINKING ABOUT TEACHING: DOES A STUDENT TEACHER IMPACT THE REFLECTIVE PRACTICES OF A COOPERATING TEACHER?

Vincent T. Laverick

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With the current movement toward evaluation of teachers based on student growth measures, this qualitative
study was conducted to learn if the presence of a student teacher in the classroom of an in-service teacher
improved the reflective practices of the in-service teacher. Rodgers' (2002) definition of reflection was used as
the theoretical framework for the study. Five teachers participated in a pre- and post-survey. In addition, four of
the five teachers who participated in the surveys also participated in an interview. The results of the study were
inconclusive. All of the in-service teachers felt the presence of the student teacher made them more reflective;
however, the data did not indicate a change in the reflective practices of the teachers due to the presence of the
student teacher.

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TRAUMA-INFORMED ADULT EDUCATION: AN INTERPRETATIVE PHENOMENOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

Thomas Wartenweiler

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The traumatized learner has a more difficult school experience. In an educational setting, academic
performance, classroom behavior and social relationships are negatively affected by trauma. The trauma
survivor is therefore likely to develop a negative or ambiguous learner identity. Trauma-informed
practices in adult education are a relatively new way to create safe learning spaces where traumatized
learners can re-shape their learner identity. The purpose of this Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis
is to explore how the participants' childhood school experiences and their learner identities inform their
experience of an adult educational program that is based on trauma-informed practices. The central thesis
is that the educational history of the traumatized learner as well as his or her learner identity are important
because they contain clues as to how to help this individual learner best to thrive in the classroom. The
results of this study are twofold: First, on an individual basis, each participant found the aspect of the
program most beneficial which helped him or her make a positive experience in the area where they had
been wounded most in their educational history. Second, four superordinate themes that apply to all
participants were identified: no parental support and social struggles at school, an alternative learning
identity, and the importance of a safe community in trauma-informed practice. The article concludes by
making recommendations for implementing trauma-informed practices in adult education.

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